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Calcium Exchange in the Human Body

3 Apr 2017 г.

Calcium is one of the most important elements in the human body which can influence on some internal metabolic processes and correct organs’ functioning.

 

Importance of the calcium balance

Normally the share of calcium in the human body is about 2% of its mass which is 1.5 – 2.0 kg. 99% of this amount is placed in the bones of skeleton in the form of apatite and carbonate, the rest is circulating in the blood and other body liquids in the ionized form.

The calcium role in human body is extremely important:

  • Calcium takes part in the nervous system functioning as a nerve impulses’ transmitter. Lack of calcium can result the fatigue, sleepiness, irritability, memory loss and distracted attention;
  • Calcium takes part in the blood coagulation;
  • Calcium regulates the strength and heart rate, the intensity of the coronary circulation, which ensures correct and healthy heart beating;
  • Calcium takes part in the immune system functioning. It helps to improve the resistance to infections;
  • Calcium takes part in the endocrine system functioning as a component of some hormones that are responsible for the children growth and physical development.

Besides that calcium reduces the allergic reactions intensity during certain diseases, takes part in the antioxidant protection, improves blood streaming and balances blood pressure.

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The reasons for calcium metabolism disorders

The reasons that can cause calcium metabolism disorders can be distinguished into several groups:

External reasons

  • Diets with lack of calcium in the food, unbalanced nutrition, fasting;
  • Continuous use of low calcium water;
  • Expressive consumption of calcium excreting products like tea, coffee, soda water.

Internal reasons

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that interfere the calcium absorption like dysbiosis, candidiasis, food allergies etc;
  • kidneys diseases;
  • pancreas diseases, pancreatitis;
  • endocrine organs diseases, various types of hypoparathyroidism;
  • musculoskeletal system diseases (osteoporosis);
  • excess of certain macronutrients lie lead, zinc, magnesium, iron, etc.;
  • lack of vitamin

 

Among the individual reasons that cause a calcium deficiency, there may be a violation of its digestibility in old age, prolonged or systemic use of diuretics or laxatives, an increased need for an element under certain conditions like pregnancy, menopause, physical and mental stress etc.

 

 

The ways of calcium metabolism regulation

Slight lack of calcium in the human body can be fixed using a calcium-containing products diet and use of calcium medications like multivitamin complexes with minerals: Calcium D3 Nicomed, Calcium Lactate, Complivit, Elevit. Balancing of calcium metabolism during disorders can be more difficult. Depending on the pathology type and its degree, the following groups of agents can be involved in restoring calcium metabolism:

 

  • parathyroid hormone preparations eliminate the leaching of calcium from the bones, normalize the calcium reabsorption in the renal tubules, thereby eliminating the calcium loss during urination;
  • calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3, increases the absorption of calcium and phosphates in the intestine and their reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules, suppresses the secretion of parathyroid hormone, regulates the process of bone mineralization. Stimulates osteoblasts, participates in cell growth and differentiation;
  • calcitonin inhibits bone resorption and tubular reabsorption of calcium, thereby decreasing its concentration in the blood;
  • bisphosphonates like Etidronate, Zoledronate, KSIcream, Aklasta are the complex medications that regulate intracell calcium metabolism. They prevent the bone tissue destruction, restore bone structure, excrete calcium salts and prevent their pathological depositing in tissues by blocking the activity of osteoclasts and have anesthetic, anti-inflammatory effect.
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